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Training for Working People: How to Assure Sufficiency, Efficiency, Impact?

On behalf of the Inter-American Development Bank, Philip Ammerman and Natalia Cuddy wrote a comprehensive report on workplace training entitled “Training for Working People: How to Assure Sufficiency, Efficiency, Impact?”


The objective of the report was to advice the Bank and its stakeholders and clients in the region on European and other international experiences with workplace training. This advice was critical given the IADB’s role in funding education, training and skills development activities.


The report and underlying analysis included an analysis of the full spectrum of workplace training activities, including critical questions such as: 


  • Setting national, sectoral and regional priorities;

  • Managing training and occupational standards; 

  • The role of social partners in setting and validating standards;

  • Financing vocational and workplace training, including an analysis of different national training funds, training loans, training vouchers, payroll levy schemes; tax incentives, individual learning accounts and other methods of financing workplace training;

  • Availability and preparation of teaching and training staff; 

  • Learning outcomes and quality assurance, including labour force participation rates;

  • Marketing and take-up of workforce training programmes, including employer and trainee support.   


Case studies of different national systems were included, such as:


  • The Cyprus Human Resources Development Authority payroll levy scheme;

  • ConstructionSkill Scotland;

  • The Western Australia Construction and Building Industry Board;

  • The Swedish IKS Scheme;

  • The Scottish Individual Learning Account (ILA) Scheme;

  • European Union policies on VET, CVET, Education and Training and others.


The report’s Table of Contents are provided below for reference. 


Navigator Consulting has extensive experience in the analysis, design and operation of training centres, training fund development, policy development and other human resources and human capital management support. 


For further information, please contact us.

Inter-American Development Bank

Date of Engagement:

Countries of Operation:
United States of America, United Kingdom, Sweden, Cyprus, Australia, European Union

Business Function:

Human Resources

Business Sector:

Management Training, Vocational Training, VET

List of Terms     



Chapter 1: Education and Training in the Modern Workforce

1.1    Management Science and HR Management

1.1.1    Frederick Taylor and the Birth of Scientific Management

1.1.2    Peter Drucker and the Knowledge Worker

1.1.3    Taiichi Ohno, Shigeo Shingo and the Toyota Production System

1.1.4    Gary Becker and Human Capital

1.1.5    Kaplan, Norton, and the Balanced Scorecard

1.1.6    The High Performance Work Organisation

1.1.7    Strategic HRM and Human Capital

1.1.8    The Learning Organisation

1.1.9    Education and Training Methods

1.1.10    The Training Cycle (Prokopenko)

1.1.11    Training Evaluation and Return-on-Investment of Training

1.1.12    A Model for Workforce Training

1.2    Business Schools and Professional Education

1.2.1    Cornell University School for Industrial and Labour Relations

1.2.2    The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD)

1.2.3    The Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM)

1.2.4    The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD)

1.2.5    The European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD)

1.2.6    Framework for Lifelong Development of Competencies & Qualifications

1.3    European Union Policy Coordination and Convergence

1.3.1    EU Policy: The Lisbon Strategy

1.3.2    EU Policy: Europe 2020

1.3.3    EU Funding: The European Social Fund (ESF)

1.3.4    EU Funding: The Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP)

Chapter 2: Labour Market Characteristics

2.1    Economic Growth Rates

2.2    The Export-led Growth Model

2.3    Competitiveness Rankings

2.4    Enterprise Employment

2.5    Employment by Sector

2.6    Employment and Unemployment Rates


Chapter 3: Adult Learning Participation in the EU and OECD

3.1 EU and OECD Statistical Sources

3.2 Lifelong Learning Participation in the EU and EEA

3.3 Continuous Vocational Training Surveys (CVTS)

3.3.1 Overall Performance, Participation and Costs Rates

3.3.2 Barriers to Participation

3.3.3 Evaluation of Training and Measuring Impact on Business Performance

3.3.4 Demand for Training: Innovation-related Training

3.4.1 Innovation Scoreboard EU

3.4.2 Innovation in Firms in Selected OECD Countries

Chapter 4: Inventory of Financial Resources for Training

4.1    National Training Funds

4.1.1    Social Partnership

4.1.2    Scaled Reimbursement Incentives

4.1.2    Eligible Expenditure per Training Programme

4.1.3    Methods of Gaming Public Expenditure

4.1.4    The Deadweight Effect

4.1.5    Budget Absorption and Efficiency

4.1.6    Cyprus HRDA Case Study

4.1.7    Western Australia Building and Construction Industry Training Board

4.1.8    Funding Impact and Return on Investment

4.2    Training Loans

4.3    Tax Incentives for Training

4.4    Vouchers and Individual Learning Accounts

4.4.1    The Swedish IKS Scheme

4.4.2    The Scotland ILA Scheme

4.5    Conclusions

Chapter 5: Training Priorities and Quality

5.1    Establishing Training Priorities

5.1.1    Establishing National Training Priorities: The Case of Cyprus

5.1.2    Establishing Sectoral Training Priorities: CITB - ConstructionSkills

5.1.3    Conclusions to Training Prioritisation

5.2    Types of Training Offered

5.3    Teaching and Training Staff

5.3.1    The Changing Role of Training Professionals

5.3.2    Entry and Qualification Requirements for VET Practitioners

5.3.3    United Kingdom

5.3.4    Cyprus

5.3.5    Greece

5.3.6    Ireland

5.3.7    Experience from Other Countries

5.4    Quality Assurance: Policy and Mechanisms

5.4.1    Policy context

5.4.2    Quality Assurance (QA) arrangements

5.4.3    Quality Assurance in the United Kingdom (England)

5.4.4    Quality Assurance in Cyprus

5.4.5    Quality Assurance of Training Programmes and Trainers


Chapter 6: Sufficiency, Efficiency and Impact

6.1    Sufficiency of Investment in Training

6.1.1    Quantitative Training Targets: Europe 2020 Example

6.1.2    Outcome-Based Approach: Investors in People Example

6.1.3    Training Incentives and Incentive Rationing

6.1.4    Recommendations for Resource Sufficiency

6.2    Efficiency of Investment in Training

6.2.1    Efficiency in Training Institutions and Funds

6.2.2    Training Outcomes

6.3    Additional Recommendations

6.3.1    Stakeholder Consultations and Involvement

6.3.2    Sustainability

6.3.3    Guidance and Information

6.3.4    e-Training Standards

6.3.5    Raising the Profile of Training and Human Capital

Annex I      Key Terms    

Annex II       List of Interviews      

Annex III       List of References

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